Tennis Fundamentals For Beginners

Whether you’re just stepping onto the court for the first time or looking to brush up on your skills, “Tennis Fundamentals For Beginners” is here to help you kickstart your tennis journey. This comprehensive guide will break down the basics of the game, from understanding the equipment to perfecting your serve. With easy-to-follow instructions and practical tips, you’ll soon feel confident and ready to take on the court. So grab your racket and get ready to elevate your game with “Tennis Fundamentals For Beginners.”

Choosing the Right Equipment


When choosing a racket, there are a few factors to consider. First, you need to find the right grip size for your hand. A grip that is too small or too big can affect your control and comfort while playing. Next, consider the weight of the racket. A lighter racket is easier to maneuver but may lack power, while a heavier racket can generate more power but may be more challenging to swing. Finally, consider the racket’s head size. A larger head provides a larger sweet spot, making it easier to hit the ball, while a smaller head offers more control but requires more precision.


Choosing the right tennis balls is crucial for your game. There are different types of tennis balls available, and each one has its own characteristics. Beginners generally start with low-compression balls, which are slower and bounce lower, making it easier to control the ball. As you progress, you can transition to standard balls, which are faster and bounce higher. Additionally, pay attention to the tennis ball’s felt. Opt for a ball with a durable felt that will last longer and provide good playability.

Appropriate Clothing

Wearing the correct clothing while playing tennis is essential for comfort and freedom of movement. Choose breathable and moisture-wicking fabrics that will keep you cool and dry during intense matches. Tennis shoes with good traction and support are also crucial to prevent slipping and provide stability. Additionally, make sure to wear a comfortable and secure hat or visor to protect yourself from the sun’s harmful rays. Lastly, don’t forget to wear sunglasses and apply sunscreen to protect your eyes and skin from UV rays.

Understanding the Court


A tennis court is rectangular and measures 78 feet long and 27 feet wide for singles matches. For doubles matches, the court is slightly wider, measuring 36 feet wide. The court is divided into two equal halves by the net. The baseline marks the back of the court, while the service line is located halfway between the baseline and the net. The center service line divides the court into two service boxes.


The lines on a tennis court are essential for determining whether the ball is in or out. The baseline extends from one end of the court to the other and is considered in-bounds. The sidelines extend from the net to the back of the court and determine whether a ball landed inside or outside of the court. The doubles alley is the area between the singles sideline and the outer sideline and is used for doubles matches.


The net is placed in the center of the court and stretches across the width. It is suspended at a height of 3 feet, 6 inches at the posts and slightly higher in the middle. The net divides the court into two sides, and players must hit the ball over the net and into the opponent’s side of the court to score points.

Tennis Fundamentals For Beginners

Grip and Stance

The grip and stance are fundamental aspects of executing proper tennis shots.

Eastern Grip

The Eastern grip is the most common grip used for forehand and backhand shots. To achieve this grip, place the base knuckle of your index finger on the third bevel of the racket handle. This grip allows for versatility in shot selection, offering control and power for both forehand and backhand strokes.

Continental Grip

The Continental grip is primarily used for serving and volleys. With this grip, place the base knuckle of your index finger on the second bevel of the racket handle. The continental grip provides stability and control when executing volleys and serves.

Semi-Western Grip

The Semi-Western grip is often used for more topspin shots, particularly on the forehand side. To achieve this grip, place the base knuckle of your index finger on the fourth bevel of the racket handle. This grip allows for greater control and spin, making it ideal for generating topspin on your shots.

Ready Position

The ready position is the stance you should assume when waiting for your opponent’s shot. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, knees slightly bent, and weight evenly distributed on both feet. Keep your racket up in front of you, and be prepared to move in any direction. This stance allows for quick reactions and optimal footwork.

Basic Tennis Shots


The forehand is the most common groundstroke in tennis. To execute a forehand shot, start with your racket back and your body sideways to the net. As the ball approaches, rotate your hips and shoulders, shifting your weight onto your front foot. Swing your racket forward, making contact with the ball in front of your body, and follow through across your body. The forehand stroke generates power, allowing you to hit the ball with pace and control.


The backhand shot can be executed with either one hand or two hands on the racket. For a one-handed backhand, start with your racket back and your body sideways to the net, similar to the forehand. Rotate your hips and shoulders, shifting your weight onto your front foot. Swing your racket forward, making contact with the ball slightly in front of your body, and follow through across your body. For a two-handed backhand, use the same technique but grip the racket with both hands.


Volleys are shots hit before the ball bounces on the court. To execute a volley, approach the net with small steps, keeping your racket up and your knees slightly bent. When the ball comes within reach, punch it back over the net, using a short and compact swing. Focus on making clean contact with the ball and directing it towards your desired target.


The serve is the shot used to start a point. To execute a serve, start by standing behind the baseline with your feet shoulder-width apart. Hold the ball in your non-dominant hand and toss it in the air, slightly in front of you. As the ball reaches its highest point, explode upwards, shifting your weight onto your front foot, and swing your racket overhead. Make contact with the ball at the highest point possible and follow through with a smooth motion. The serve is a powerful shot that can set you up for an advantageous position in the game.

Overhead Smash

The overhead smash is used when the ball is high in the air, typically as a response to a lob or high defensive shot. To execute an overhead smash, position yourself under the ball and prepare to hit it with both hands on the racket. Jump or reach up and swing your racket down forcefully, making contact above your head. Follow through with the swing and aim to hit the ball with power and accuracy, directing it towards an area that gives your opponent difficulty.


The lob is a defensive shot used to return high shots that are difficult to attack. To execute a lob, step back and position yourself under the ball. Swing your racket upwards and aim to hit the ball with an arcing trajectory, sending it high over your opponent’s head. The lob can be an effective shot to regain control of the point or create an opportunity for a more strategic shot.

Tennis Fundamentals For Beginners

Footwork and Movement


The split-step is a crucial footwork technique used to anticipate your opponent’s shot. Stand in the ready position and, as your opponent begins their shot, jump slightly off both feet and land with your feet shoulder-width apart. This split-second pause allows you to react quickly and move in the appropriate direction based on the incoming shot.

Sideways Shuffle

The sideways shuffle is used to move laterally along the baseline or when transitioning to the net. Start in a wide stance with your knees slightly bent. Shuffle your feet sideways, alternating steps with small, quick movements. The sideways shuffle allows you to maintain balance and stay ready to reach shots from side to side.


The cross-step is a footwork technique used to move towards the net or change direction quickly. Start with your feet in a wide stance and take a big step forward with your front foot, crossing it over your back foot. Repeat this movement as necessary to cover ground quickly. The cross-step allows for rapid changes in direction, enabling you to adjust your position on the court efficiently.

Recovery Steps

Recovery steps are crucial after each shot to regain a balanced and ready position. After hitting a shot, immediately take small steps to return to the center of the court. This movement will allow you to react quickly to your opponent’s shots and maintain good court coverage.


Basic Scoring System

Tennis uses a unique scoring system, consisting of love (0 points), 15, 30, 40, and the game point. Each point won is called out, except for the third point, which is referred to as “40.” If both players reach “40,” it is known as deuce, and either player must win two consecutive points to win the game.


Deuce occurs when both players reach a score of 40. To win the game from deuce, a player must win two consecutive points. The first point after deuce is referred to as advantage, and if the player who has advantage wins the next point, they win the game. However, if the player without advantage wins the point, the score returns to deuce.


Advantage is the first point won after a deuce. If the player with advantage wins the next point, they win the game. However, if the player without advantage wins the point, the score returns to deuce.


A tiebreaker is used to determine the winner of a set when the score reaches six games all. In a tiebreaker, each point is counted as one, and the first player to reach seven points, with a minimum two-point advantage, wins the tiebreaker and the set.

Rules and Etiquette

Ball in or out?

If you are unsure whether a ball is in or out, you can ask your opponent or make a decision based on your best judgment. However, if there is doubt, it is common courtesy to consider the ball in and play a let.

Serving Order

At the start of a match, a coin toss or spin of the racket determines which player gets to choose whether to serve or receive first. The chosen player can decide to serve or let the opponent serve first. After the first game, the serving order alternates between players for the entire match.

Let Service

If a serve hits the net and lands within the service box, it is called a let. In this case, the server can retake the serve without any penalties. Lets are not considered faults and do not count as a serve.

Code of Conduct

Tennis has a code of conduct that players should adhere to. Players should respect their opponent, the officials, and the rules of the game. Unsportsmanlike conduct, such as excessive arguing, racquet abuse, or verbal abuse, can result in penalties or even disqualification. Show good sportsmanship and play with integrity, regardless of the outcome of the match.

Practice Drills

Groundstroke Rally

A groundstroke rally drill involves hitting forehands and backhands back and forth with a partner. Stand on opposite sides of the court and rally the ball to each other, focusing on technique, consistency, and control. This drill helps improve your groundstroke strokes and your ability to sustain a rally.

Serving Practice

Serving practice is essential to improve the accuracy and power of your serves. Set up targets on the court and aim to hit them consistently. Start with a slower pace and focus on hitting the targets. As you become more comfortable, increase the speed and work on incorporating spin and variety into your serves.

Volley Practice

Volley practice involves hitting volleys back and forth with a partner or against a wall. Focus on keeping your hands steady and making clean contact. Practice hitting volleys from different positions on the court to simulate game scenarios and improve your ability to read and react to shots.

Baseline to Net Drill

The baseline to net drill involves starting at the baseline and moving forward towards the net, hitting shots such as approach shots and volleys. This drill helps simulate moving up the court and transitioning from defensive to offensive positions. Focus on footwork, shot selection, and maintaining a balanced position throughout the drill.

Tennis Terminology


An ace is a serve that the receiving player fails to touch with their racket, resulting in a point for the server.


Deuce is a score of 40-40, which occurs when both players have won three points.

Break Point

A break point is an opportunity for the receiving player to win the game on their opponent’s serve. If the receiving player wins a break point, it is known as breaking serve.

Match Point

Match point is the point that, if won, allows a player to win the entire match. At match point, one player is only one point away from victory.


Love represents a score of zero in tennis. It is often used as shorthand to indicate a player has not yet won any points in a game or set.


In tennis scoring, 30 represents the score after a player has won two points, 15 represents the score after one point has been won, and 40 represents the score after three points have been won.


A let occurs when a serve hits the net but lands within the service box. The server is allowed to retake the serve without any penalties.


A fault is a serve that does not land within the proper service box or touches the net on its way over. If a player accumulates multiple faults, they lose the point.

Improving Strategy and Game Sense

Shot Placement

Shot placement refers to the ability to hit the ball to specific areas of the court strategically. By aiming for the sidelines, corners, or behind your opponent, you can force them into difficult positions and control the flow of the point. Practice hitting shots with intention, considering where your opponent is positioned and how you can exploit their weaknesses.

Court Awareness

Developing court awareness involves understanding the positions of both you and your opponent on the court. By being aware of where your opponent is and how they are moving, you can anticipate their shots and adjust your positioning accordingly. Pay attention to your surroundings and use this information to your advantage.

Developing Rallies

Rallies are extended exchanges of shots between players. Developing the ability to sustain rallies is crucial as it allows you to test your opponent’s consistency and endurance. Practice hitting shots with good depth and control, focusing on keeping the ball in play rather than going for winners. This will help you build endurance and improve your ability to construct points.

Anticipating Shots

Anticipating shots involves reading your opponent’s body language, shot selection, and court positioning to predict where they are likely to hit the ball. This skill allows you to react quickly and get into an optimal position to return the shot effectively. Pay attention to your opponent’s patterns and tendencies to anticipate their shots and gain an advantage.

Creating Angles

Creating angles involves hitting shots that force your opponent to stretch or move out of position. By hitting the ball crosscourt or down the line at different angles, you can disrupt your opponent’s rhythm and open up the court for more attacking opportunities. Practice hitting shots with purpose and using the angles to gain an advantage in the point.

By following these fundamental principles and regularly practicing the various aspects of the game, you can develop a strong foundation in tennis. Remember, consistency, technique, and strategy are key elements in improving your skills and enjoying the game to the fullest. So grab your racket, hit the court, and embrace the exciting world of tennis!